Tagged: marginal gains

What great schools do.

A few weeks ago I read an article on the BBC website written by Mike Henson entitled – ‘Inside the cult of Saracens.’ The article explores how the English rugby team Saracens has built a culture of togetherness that has enabled the team to perform better on the pitch. If you haven’t read the article please spend five minutes reading now!

After reading the article one section struck me as an excellent vision statement for what successful schools do. If you replaced ‘Saracens’ with the name of your school you have an extremely powerful statement of intent…

What successful schools do - taken from http://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/0/rugby-union/27536258

What successful schools do – taken from http://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/0/rugby-union/27536258

From reading the above statement you would never be in any doubt of the WHY behind Saracens. They know WHAT they do and HOW to go about doing it. What gives them an edge over their opponents is an extremely clear sense of WHY they do what they do. It’s this clear purpose that binds great teams together. This theory comes from Simon Sinek and is summed up in the TED talk below.

How clear is your sense of WHY you do what you do?

How clearly articulated (and frequently) is your schools WHY communicated?

#neverstoplearning

See also: The moral purpose of schools is obvious isn’t it?

#TMCOOP presentation – Raising attainment at KS4.

On Thursday 22nd May I presented some ideas at #TMCOOP about how to raise attainment at KS4. Below is a summary of my presentation.

Raising attainment at KS4.

I’ve noticed in my relatively short time of being a teacher that one of the overwhelmingly strongest indicators of how well a student achieves is effort. This may sound obvious. It is. Angela Duckworth discovered this in her research on GRIT (persistant effort towards a long term goal). If we want to do well at something that’s difficult it will require a huge amount of effort. How often do students not realise this until it is too late… “I wish I’d put more effort into revising.” When I look back over the past few years and analyse why some students have performed well at KS4 and some didn’t, the main differentiator is effort.

DONT BE UPSET

During last two terms I have attempted to build an ‘ethic of excellence’ in my classroom. I want all students to aspire to achieve the very top grades and I want them to know it will take a huge amount effort. I also want them to know that I will match their effort by supporting them through rigorous marking and feedback. Students aren’t always the best at following instructions from adults but they can be extremely good at mimicking behaviours.

An ethic of excellence.

Having read Ron Berger’s remarkable book ‘An Ethic of Excellence’ I was motivated to get my students working their socks off. In the book Berger talks about how he spends a lot of time ensuring that the work he asks his students to do is as close to a ‘real life’ as possible. He also discusses how he built a culture in his classroom whereby students only received one of two grades for their work – ‘Excellent’ or ‘Not finished yet.’ What a powerful system. I decided to give it a try with a GCSE class that were about to start a 10 week coursework project. Target grades ranged from A to E.

An Ethic of Excellence by Ron Berger

An Ethic of Excellence by Ron Berger

High expectations.

Do target grades have an adverse effect on effort? If a student is targeted a D/E grade, is it possible that they might see that as an opportunity to adjust their effort to reflect the low target, i.e. not try very hard. To test this hypothesis I started by setting a default expectation of all students in the class: A*. Was I confident that all students would achieve this? Realistically, probably not as there are many factors out of my control (attendance being one of them). But I was confident that this strategy would help everyone achieve or exceed their target grade (something that I hadn’t managed to do in the past).

Slide used in lessons.

Slide used in lessons.

Talent isn’t born.

I spent sometime explaining to students about the David Beckham’s and Jonny Wilkinson’s of this world and how much effort they put into practising. At the beginning of most lessons we would watch a short clip that actively demonstrated how high levels of effort matched with deliberate practice can lead to very impressive results. I found the work of Daniel Coyle (and his book ‘The Talent Code’) particularly helpful in shaping my thinking around this.  In his book, Coyle explains how he spent almost two years scouring the world researching groups of talented people – from teenage Brazilian football players to young musical prodigies. A recurring theme was shared amongst all these successful groups. Lots of effort coupled with deliberate practice that was guided by a master coach.

'The Talent Code' by Daniel Coyle.

‘The Talent Code’ by Daniel Coyle.

Students were beginning to understand that the more effort they put in, the more they asked for my advice, the more they thought about their work the better the chance they had at achieving an A*.

Re-drafting

This is where the effort manifested itself in the classroom. I introduced Berger’s idea of grading work as either ‘Excellent’ or ‘Not finished yet.’ Berger describes the art of re-drafting brilliantly in the video ‘Austin’s butterfly’ which is about a young boy who is asked to draw a butterfly by copying a photograph. You can see the difference in quality from the first attempt to the final attempt.

Austin's butterfly.

Austin’s butterfly.

 

I attempted to build a culture in the classroom where it was typicality that all students would re-draft their work. Students were asked to re-draft their work several times which often led to a small incremental increase in marks between drafts but a huge difference by the time the final draft was submitted. Students also learnt to take a bit more pride in their work which appeared to come about because they had put so much effort into the redrafting that when it came time to submit a final copy they wanted it to be as close to perfect as possible.

Feedback – no grades.

The re-drafting was helped along by precise feedback in which I gave no grades. Instead I opted to simply tell students how many marks they were away from an A*. I then broke the mark scheme down into very small specific chunks which when added up would give full marks. This helped me move away from phrases like “Explain more” and enabled me to give really precise feedback to students. If a student was 15 marks from an A* they were able to tangibly see where they could add those marks to their work. With a potential A* on the line they were happy to continue to re-draft.

Feedback form.

Feedback form (page 1 of 2)

Impact.

I’d like to say a class full of A* grades but that was not the case. However all students did either achieve or exceed their target grade with no student scoring below a C and four students securing an A*. It wasn’t just the grades that pleased me but also the students attitudes towards their work. In class they were more focused and keen to give me work to mark. The students were proud of what they had achieved and I was extremely proud of them.

Focus.

Focus.

What I have described in this post is by no means an exact science and I’m certainly not telling you to change what you’re doing, but this worked for these students.

And remember… “Don’t be upset with the results you didn’t get from the work you didn’t do.” I think this applies to us all.

#neverstoplearning

 

Increasing bandwidth – Planning a revision session.

Talent isn’t born. It’s made. 

In Daniel Coyle’s book ‘The Talent Code’ he travels the world to seek out groups of very successful people and in an attempt to discover why they are so successful. Through his observations of multiple different groups from musicians to football players he noticed one recurring trend – deep practice. In fact he has created an equation that summarises the elements needed to make progress and succeed at something. It looks like this…

'The Talent Code' by Daniel Coyle.

‘The Talent Code’ by Daniel Coyle.

Ignition or primal cues relates to the motivation a person has to be successful in the first place. As a teacher I believe it’s part of my job to talk to students about what motivates them to succeed. Some students are able to easily articulate this. whereas some will need some help finding the reason why they need to be successful. Either way I need to support the students I teach in understanding their ignition to succeed.

Continual deep practice is about increasing the amount of myelin in the brain*.  Have a look at this great interactive guide to Myelin on Daniel Coyle’s website. Myelin is…

Myelin is a lipid and protein sheath-like material that forms an insulating cover that surrounds and protects nerve fibres. 

Structure of a typical neuron from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myelin

Structure of a typical neuron from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myelin

The general idea is that the more myelin you have insulating your nerve fibres, the faster impulses (or information) can travel between nerve cells.  Some scientists believe that myelin can be increased with regular deliberate practice. It’s similar to bandwidth in the speed of an internet connection. The more bandwidth you have the faster the transfer of data. The more practice you put in, the more the myelin wraps around the nerve fibre increasing the bandwidth (the diagram below shows this in a bit more detail). It’s worth noting that this works both ways and needs to be maintained with regular practice.

Cross section of a myelinated axon taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myelin

Cross section of a myelinated axon taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myelin

 

Daniel Coyle uses the example of Brazilian soccer players to explain deep practice in action. From an early age they play a game called Futsal and they continue to play it into their teenage years. Futsal is played on smaller court with a smaller ball which means that players will touch the ball more often than playing 11 a side on a full size pitch. This is deep practice. It’s quality controlled by a master coach (someone with expert knowledge of the game / subject) who intervenes with striking impact to ensure learning is meaningful. The video below examines more examples of where deep practice has produced successful outcomes.

How does this apply to revision?

If we want students to be successful in exams then they need to practice – sounds simple enough, but is not entirely true. If we want students to be successful they have to fine tune their practice so that it is deep, deliberate and regular in order to build up a thicker insulation of myelin. What follows are few strategies that I am currently trialling to achieve this.

1) Regular self assessment with input from the teacher.

It’s important to let students assess their own strengths and weaknesses when it comes to a topic to revise. Teachers are the master coaches described in ‘The Talent Code.’ We have to know our students well and track their learning and use this information to intervene with self assessments so that students know what they are actually good at and areas that they need to improve. The key to good revision (I believe) is to focus more time on the weaker areas (being deliberate) rather than spending lots of time revisiting knowledge/skills that a student is already competent in. Below is an example of a self-assessment I have used with students. The black ‘X’ represents the student response. The green Y’s represent my response based upon prior testing and my knowledge of the students competencies through questioning and classwork. If I have agreed with the students response I have not added an additional symbol.

Self-assessment grid example - used prior to starting revision for a particular topic.

Self-assessment grid example – used prior to starting revision for a particular topic.

The grid provides a clarity. Students get validation for what they think they already know or an opportunity to discuss area for improvements. It also helps students to focus in on the weaker areas and thus provides a starting point for revision.

2) Chunking information.

Once students have self assessed their strengths and weaknesses and they have been agreed, they can then begin revising required knowledge. In order to not overload the students working memory I have created a resource that chunks the information down in smaller sub-topics (see the list on the self reflection diagram above). Each sub topic has a series of questions that students answer in an open book environment. Example answers to these sections are released to students once they have attempted to answer them. They also have access to past paper exam questions and answers. Students are free to work through this revision pack using the self assessment as a rudder to guide them towards topics that will require more attention.

Example revision pack split into sub topics with past paper exam questions.

Example revision pack split into sub topics with past paper exam questions.

3) Regular rigorous multiple choice tests.

The ‘chunked’ revision materials are sync with a multiple choice test. I have created the tests using Joe Kirby’s brilliant posts on designing rigorous multiple choice tests (Post 1 | Post 2). I’ve attempted to increase rigor by adding more incorrect answers that are based on common student misconceptions.

Example question from a multiple choice test for GCSE Computing.

Example question from a multiple choice test for GCSE Computing.

The tests can be taken multiple times and using a platform like Edmodo means the tests are also tracked and scored without the teacher lifting a finger. Edmodo also allows students to go back through the test and see where they dropped marks.

An example of automatic feedback generated by Edmodo coupled with a comment from the teacher.

An example of automatic feedback generated by Edmodo coupled with a comment from the teacher.

 

A key element here is frequency and over a 6 week revision period it’s important to space the timing of these multiple choice tests to aid retention. As Joe points out in his most recent post on curriculum design,

Repeated retrieval improves long term retention: frequent quizzing prevents forgetting.

Read more about this here at Joe’s blog.

4) Regular ‘Walking – Talking’ mock exams.

One new strategy that has been trialled at my school this year has been ‘walking-talking’ mocks in all subjects. For those not familiar here’s how they work. The students revise for a mock as normal. When the mock exam takes place the teacher walks them through the first question and then gives students an appropriate amount of time (depending on the number of marks available usually) to complete the question and then get some instant feedback on how well they did. It’s hard to judge the real impact of doing this exercise but it certainly helps students feel more comfortable in exam conditions. I know I have been guilty in the past of running a mock exam in ‘exam conditions’, students tend to score poorly on it, get feedback but didn’t get an opportunity to re-draft answers (my fault) and the whole scenario was demotivating and not very productive. A walking-talking mock provide students to feel success in an exam environment. This new found motivation can then be used to drive revision sessions. As the year goes the strategy is to get students to sit 3-4 mock exams and by the end of the process provide them with less and less support as their confidence grows.


This post is by no means a ‘you should run revision sessions like this’ post. It’s a reflection on some of the ideas that have inspired my thoughts around how to do revision better. It is very much a work in progress and feedback is very much welcome!

I often tell my students to not be upset with the results they didn’t get from the work they didn’t do. I feel the same and care deeply about their results. When my students walk into the their exam I want to make sure I’ve done everything within my power to ensure they succeed.

Image via @gapingvoid - http://gapingvoid.com/

Image via @gapingvoid – http://gapingvoid.com/

Further reading:

Myelin – by Daniel Coyle

How to grow a super athlete – by Dainel Coyle

The myelin in all of us – by David Shenk

Why use multiple choice tests – by Joe Kirby

How to design multiple-choice questions – by Joe Kirby

Research on multiple-choice questions – by Daisy Christodoulou

Walking, talking mocks: are mock exams the way forward? – by Martin Jones

Hardwiring learning and effort = success – by Domini Choudhury

*I am not a scientist. For more information on myelin please see this interactive guide or even better still, read Daniel Coyle’s book ‘The Talent Code.

#neverstoplearning

Shifting gears

Image via @gapingvoid - http://gapingvoid.com/

Image via @gapingvoid – http://gapingvoid.com/

Inspired by Zoe Elder’s post – ‘Why we continue to accept the challenge’ and Mark Anderson’s post ‘Be happy,’ here is a quick post with the start of a new term in mind.

2013 was a remarkable year. 2014 will be better. It’s time to shift gears.

Four tips to help you make this year even better:

1. Keep exploring.

2. Connect with others.

3. Share your discoveries.

4. Deepen your understanding.

Remember, you’re only human but you make an incredible difference.

#neverstoplearning

#ClevedonTM – a reflection…

On Thursday 18th October I attended my first ever ‘Teach Meet’ at Clevedon School and what a truly inspirational evening it was!

I followed the the previous Clevedon TM on Twitter and was very excited to be attending Clevedon School’s 5th TM. The event was expertly organised and hosted by @ICTEvangelist (who deserves a lot of praise for his enthusiasm and professionalism!!). After some splendid food provided by a local sponsor, the evening was split into three main sections. First up was a keynote speech from @VicGoddard (Headteacher at Passmores Academy (stars of the channel 4 show ‘Educating Essex’)), followed by a selection of workshops and seminars,  finishing with micro-presentations from teachers wanting to share ideas and best practice. This post aims to highlight a few of the messages I took away from the evening…

Keynote speech from Vic Goddard

Vic Goddard was first to take to the stage to give a speech about his journey in education, vision for education and a stark reminder for why we have chosen the best job in the world. His speech was very honest, motivating and truly inspirational. I was moved by what Vic said and felt more motivated to try even harder to encourage young people to be more then they think they can be, to break down the barriers preventing them from being successful. Don’t just take my word for it, watch the videos below.

We have to be a ‘no fail’ organisation. Is that possible? I don’t know but I’m going to die trying and I expect that of my staff too.

Seminars: John Wells – Whole School Improvement

I signed up for John Wells seminar on whole school improvement and I wasn’t let down. My school has recently had a change of headship and SLT team, so we have had a lot of changes put in a place in a bid to improve the school. As such I was keen to get any ideas I could to feedback to the new leadership team.

John gave an extremely honest and revealing review of how Clevedon school were progressing towards becoming an outstanding school and certainly gave me food for thought! I was very impressed with the bold decisions John made as Head Teacher but even more so about how he communicated the bigger picture to his staff and gave them ownership of the vision. He identified road blocks and explained how he navigated these. He also shared some practical examples of changes he has made regarding uniform, non-negotiable’s in lessons (branded ‘The Clevedon Lesson’ – excellent idea!!) and how he had freed up department leaders to purely focus on teaching and learning. Please watch the videos below for more info…

Mirco – presentations

The last section of the evening revolved around 5 minute mirco presentations from teachers and educational professionals who had something to share. This was where my note pad went into overdrive!! Idea after idea after idea after idea… e.t.c. A few of the ‘nuggets’ I picked up on were:

  • the grandad video
  • assessment and feedback using Google Drive
  • pop-up museums
  • death by prezi
  • Imaginarium
  • SAMR framework to transform learning

To name but a few… For videos of all micro presentations please visit the Clevedon TM YouTube channel.

If you have yet to attend a Teach Meet I would strongly advise that you get yourself to one in your local area at the next available opportunity. I must admit it was the most enriching CPD event I have ever been to and look forward to attending more and hopefully presenting (something useful) in the future!!

#neverstoplearning

Learning journeys…

Working in education I feel everyday is part of a much bigger journey. Some days leave you feeling low whilst others leave you feeling an overwhelming sense of satisfaction.

In the classroom I have been on a journey for almost 4 years now and I am constantly striving to engage learners and make them want to learn. I have tried out lots of different strategies with varying results and I am not afraid to say that some of them destroyed lessons! But I learnt from those experiences.

Having responded to a tweet yesterday with a picture of a ‘learning journey’ from a lesson I was planning, I was suddenly inundated with positive responses,  re-tweets and new followers.  So I decided to blog about it in a bit more detail…

A learning journey (like the one below) is a visual representation of what students can expect to encounter during a lesson. I actually got the idea from @learningspy (please check out his blog for lots of great ideas!). The general idea is that it shows students a route to where they need to get to by the end of a lesson. I began using this last term and embedded it into all my lessons. Students were a bit weary at first but eventually it led to students coming into my room, congregating around the whiteboard looking at the learning journey and then questions about the lesson started to trickle through. I’ve also used it as a starter – “Look at the learning journey on the board, you have 2 minutes to construct a question about today’s lesson…” This has prompted good classroom discussions leading into the next step of the learning journey.

In addition to using learning journeys to help students map out a lesson and further clarify the content of a lesson, I have been experimenting with the way I have been sharing learning objectives with students. Again I can’t claim these ideas for my own! They were generated from reading @learningspy ‘s excellent book ‘The Perfect English Ofsted Lesson.’ The book discusses multiple examples of how teachers can share learning objectives with students and one method that I have found to be successful is shown below…

I have used the above method across all year groups (KS3, KS4 + KS5) and have found the majority of students respond well to it. Prior to using this method I would have my learning objectives and outcomes up on the board and would simply read them out. It felt like something I had to be doing but had little or no effect on the students. The method above makes students more accountable for their learning; they have to take in the learning objective, digest it and set their sights on a goal for the lesson by choosing a level to work towards. This will also help you with showing progress in lessons as students have a clear indicator of what they need to do achieve their target and beyond. One thing to note here is that I had to spend time explaining the difference between the terms ‘describe’, ‘explain’ and ‘discuss.’ With KS3 I went a step further and showed them model answers for each and getting them to practice writing using the three different terms.

The learning objective itself has been developed after reading @fullonlearning ‘s book and specifically her ideas on ‘marginal gains.’ By simply adding the words ‘so that’, students are given a purpose and told the ‘why’ before the ‘what’ and ‘how’.  Again this is a really easy, quick win for teachers!

This is by no means an exact science and what works for one does not always work for others, but it is working for me so far! I am being observed on this lesson the first week back after half term by the CEO of my schools learning federation so I will feedback on my feedback then! My learning journey is only just beginning and all going well, I’ll never stop learning.

**Please check my reading list to find links to books by @learningspy and @fullonlearning . If you haven’t read them yet I strongly suggest you do so!!

#neverstoplearning